South Carolina, State and Territorial Censuses, 1753–1920

Toni Carrier
by Toni Carrier
Detail From 1869 South Carolina State Census
Detail From 1869 South Carolina State Census, “South Carolina, State and Territorial Censuses, 1829-1920,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3Q9M-CSSW-XSFY-4?cc=2524910&wc=FPYV-829%3A1644052301 : 28 January 2020), South Carolina, Georgetown > image 95 of 150, South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia.

Today’s featured FamilySearch collection is South Carolina, State and Territorial Censuses, 1753–1920. This searchable collection consists of several state and local census records for South Carolina, including City Council of Georgetown census, 1920; South Carolina state censuses, 1829-1875; Union County census, 1869; City Council of Aiken census, 1868; and Village of Edgefield census, 1891.

State and territorial census records can help you pinpoint your ancestor’s location and household demographics for years between Federal Census years, and can be helpful for filling in the 20 year gap between the 1880 and 1900 U.S. Census.

Most important for African American genealogy research, these records can help you locate your ancestor before 1870. Knowing your ancestor’s location before 1870 may lead you to other records such as Freedmen’s Bureau records, Southern Claims Commission records and other Reconstruction era records that are organized by location.

What’s in This Collection

This collection is made up of a variety of records, so information within the records is variable. Information in these records may include:

  • Full name of your ancestor
  • Others living in same household
  • Relationship to others in household
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Color or race
  • Numbers of individuals in the household grouped by age and race
  • Address
  • Employment
  • Occupation
  • Military service
  • Number of children born/living
  • Education
  • Ability to read/write

To learn more about this collection and how to use it in your research, please see the collection’s Learn More page.

Researching from This Collection

If you find an ancestor in these records, first add the information to your ancestor’s timeline. To learn how keeping a timeline for your ancestor can help in your genealogy research, please see the articles Timelines Keep your Genealogy Research Moving Forward by Dr. Shelley Viola Murphy and Finding Documentation for Your Ancestor’s Timeline by Robin Foster.

Then, use the information in the records to search for more records for your ancestor.

Example: Kingsale Pringle, 1869 State Census

Let’s look at an example for Kingsale pringle, who was enumerated in the 1869 State Census in Georgetown, South Carolina:

Kingsale Pringle, 1869 South Carolina State Census
Kingsale Pringle, 1869 South Carolina State Census, “South Carolina, State and Territorial Censuses, 1829-1920,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3Q9M-CSSW-XSFY-4?cc=2524910&wc=FPYV-829%3A1644052301 : 28 January 2020), South Carolina, Georgetown > image 95 of 150, South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia.

From this record, we learn that Kingsale Pringle was living in Georgetown, South Carolina in 1869. His household consisted of:

  • one black male between the ages of 6 and 16
  • one black female between the ages of 6 and 16
  • one black male over 21 years of age
  • Total number of black males of all ages: 2
  • Total number of black females of all ages: 2

Let’s search for Kingsale Pringle in Georgetown to see if we can locate more records.

Kingsale Pringle, 1880 Census, North Santee

We found Kingsale Pringle in the 1880 U.S. Census living on North Santee in Georgetown, South Carolina. In his household were:

Reltn. = Relationship to head of household, Status = Marital Status

Name                           Race    Gender            Age      Reltn.   Status              Birth Place

Pringle, Kingsale        Black   Male                46        Head    Married           SC

Pringle, Bella              Black   Female             35        Wife    Married           SC

Pringle, Cuffy             Black   Male                14        Son      Single              SC

Kingsale Pringle, 1880 Census, Georgetown, South Carolina
Kingsale Pringle, 1880 U.S. Census, Georgetown, South Carolina, Ancestry.com and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1880 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2010. 1880. Original data: Tenth Census of the United States, 1880. (NARA microfilm publication T9, 1,454 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C. Year: 1880; Census Place: Santee, Georgetown, South Carolina; Roll: 1230; Family History Film: 1255230; Page: 406A; Enumeration District: 054.

Knowing the names of Kingsale Pringle’s family members will help us search for more records for this family. Let’s search for Kingsale Pringle with the names of his family members.

Freedmen’s Labor Contract, Kingsale and Bella Pringle

We searched for Kingsale and Bella Pringle and found a Freedmen’s Labor Contract. On January 18, 1867, Kingsale Pringle, Bella Pringle and 60 Freedmen entered into a labor contract with Edward and Arthur M. Manigault at White Oak Plantation on the North Santee River in Georgetown County (please click on images to view larger):

Freedmen's Labor Contract, Kingsale and Bella Pringle with Edward and Arthur M. Manigault
Freedmen’s Labor Contract, Kingsale and Bella Pringle with Edward and Arthur M. Manigault
Freedmen's Labor Contract, Kingsale and Bella Pringle with Edward and Arthur M. Manigault
Freedmen’s Labor Contract, Kingsale and Bella Pringle with Edward and Arthur M. Manigault
Freedmen's Labor Contract, Kingsale and Bella Pringle with Edward and Arthur M. Manigault
Freedmen’s Labor Contract, Kingsale and Bella Pringle with Edward and Arthur M. Manigault
Labor Contract, Kingsale Pringle with Edward and Arthur M. Manigault
Freedmen’s Labor Contract, Kingsale and Bella Pringle with Edward and Arthur M. Manigault, “South Carolina, Freedmen’s Bureau Field Office Records, 1865-1872,” images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3QS7-L9ZG-87GV?cc=2127881&wc=MFH2-3M9%3A1017931601%2C1017956401 : 21 May 2014), Georgetown (subassistant commissioner) > Roll 77, Labor contracts, Apr 1867-Mar 1868 > image 138 of 354; citing NARA microfilm publication M1910 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).

Were Edward and Arthur M. Manigault Slaveholders?

If you find your ancestor in a Freedmen’s labor contract, this may be a clue to the identity of a former slaveholder as many freed people entered into labor contracts with their former enslaver in the earliest years following the Civil War. Kingsale and Bella were working for Edward and Arthur M. Manigault.

We can search the FamilySearch collection United States 1860 Census Slave Schedules to see if either Edward or Arthur Manigault were former slaveholders. We did find both holding enslaved people in Georgetown, South Carolina. Edward Manigault is listed as holding two enslaved people. A.M. Manigault held many more:

Name: A M Manigault
Event Type: Census
Event Date: 1860
Event Place: Georgetown, South Carolina, United States
Event Place (Original): 2, Prince George, South Carolina
Page: 97
Relationship to Owner: Owner

HouseholdRoleSexAgeBirthplace
A M Manigault
UNKNOWNF27
UNKNOWNM18
UNKNOWNF17
UNKNOWNM10
UNKNOWNM9
UNKNOWNM8
UNKNOWNM2
UNKNOWNM30
UNKNOWNF30
UNKNOWNM13
UNKNOWNF25
UNKNOWNF10
UNKNOWNF6
UNKNOWNM40
UNKNOWNF38
UNKNOWNM39
UNKNOWNF35
UNKNOWNM18
UNKNOWNM10
UNKNOWNM8
UNKNOWNM18
UNKNOWNM10
UNKNOWNM8
UNKNOWNM2
UNKNOWNF65
UNKNOWNF34
UNKNOWNF35
UNKNOWNM15
UNKNOWNM1
UNKNOWNF1
UNKNOWNM4
UNKNOWNF45
UNKNOWNF25
UNKNOWNM22
UNKNOWNF30
UNKNOWNF8
UNKNOWNF3
UNKNOWNM30
UNKNOWNM28
UNKNOWNF26
UNKNOWNM22
UNKNOWNF60
UNKNOWNM25
UNKNOWNF35
UNKNOWNM18
UNKNOWNM1
UNKNOWNM50
UNKNOWNM37
UNKNOWNF27
UNKNOWNF17
UNKNOWNF11
UNKNOWNF1
UNKNOWNM40
UNKNOWNF45
UNKNOWNM29
UNKNOWNF30
UNKNOWNM33
UNKNOWNM70
UNKNOWNM23
UNKNOWNF60
UNKNOWNM39
UNKNOWNF35
UNKNOWNM15
UNKNOWNF12
UNKNOWNM2
UNKNOWNM1
UNKNOWNM50
UNKNOWNM28
UNKNOWNM28
UNKNOWNF19
UNKNOWNF25
UNKNOWNM23
UNKNOWNF20
UNKNOWNF50
UNKNOWNF28
UNKNOWNM45
UNKNOWNF40
UNKNOWNF30
UNKNOWNF28
UNKNOWNF10
UNKNOWNM8
UNKNOWNF5
UNKNOWNM4
UNKNOWNM50
UNKNOWNF55
UNKNOWNF30
UNKNOWNM30
UNKNOWNF17
UNKNOWNM30
UNKNOWNF40
UNKNOWNM35
UNKNOWNM17
UNKNOWNM40
UNKNOWNF45
UNKNOWNM40
UNKNOWNF23
UNKNOWNM33
UNKNOWNF5
UNKNOWNM8
UNKNOWNM28
UNKNOWNF25
UNKNOWNF27
UNKNOWNM29
UNKNOWNM50
UNKNOWNF48
UNKNOWNF28
UNKNOWNM20
UNKNOWNF30
UNKNOWNF23
UNKNOWNF40
UNKNOWNF15
UNKNOWNM40
UNKNOWNF30
UNKNOWNF20

District: 2
Line Number: 21
GS Film Number: 000805235
Digital Folder Number: 005170543
Image Number: 00303

“United States Census (Slave Schedule), 1860”, database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:W8MX-S6ZM : 16 October 2019), A M Manigault, 1860.

Kingsale Pringle, Freedman’s Bank Record

Our search for Kingsale, Bella and Cuffy Pringle also revealed a Freedman’s Bank record for King S. Pringle, made in April of 1870. His residence was North Santee, Georgetown, South Carolina, where he was farming for Col. Manigault. The Freedmen’s labor contract above is between Kingsale and Bella Pringle and Edward and Arthur M. Manigault, so the information in this record agrees with that of the labor contract. We also see wife Bella and son Cuffy listed here:

Freedman's Bank Record, King S. Pringle
Freedman’s Bank Record, King S. Pringle, “United States, Freedman’s Bank Records, 1865-1874,” database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HY-XCQW-6L?cc=1417695&wc=3MDR-T3D%3A1551795003%2C1551795001 : 5 February 2015), Charleston, South Carolina > Roll 22, Dec 4, 1869-Dec 2, 1871, accounts 3833-6626 > image 122 of 421; citing NARA microfilm publication M816 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1970).

We learn from this record that King Pringle was born at Drayton Hall Plantation on the Ashley river in Charleston. We also learn the names of his parents, Renty and Susan and his siblings Frank, Georgiana, Nancy and Delia.

Record for: King S. Pringle
Date of Application: April 13 1870
Where Born: Ashley River Drayton Hall
Where Brought Up: do [ditto]
Residence: North Santee
Age: 40 yr.
Complexion: Black
Occupation: Farming
Works for: Col. Manigault
Wife: Bella
Children: Cuffy & Georgiana (dead)
Father: Renty Pringle (dead)
Mother: Susan Pringle (dead)
Brothers: Frank Pringle (dead)
Sisters: Georgiana Steward & Nancy (dead) Delia (dead)
Remarks: Cuffy Remiden came with him
Signature: King S. Pringle X His Mark

King S. Pringle stated that he was born at Drayton Hall on the Ashley River in Charleston. The owner of Drayton Hall during Kingsale’s lifetime was Charles Drayton.

Probate Records, Charles Drayton

Charles Drayton, the owner of Drayton Hall during Kingale’s younger life, died in 18201. In his will, he bequeathed Drayton Hall to his son Charles Drayton, Jr. You can read his entire will on FamilySearch here.

Detail, Will of Charles Drayton, Sr., 1820
Detail, Will of Charles Drayton, Sr. “South Carolina Probate Records, Bound Volumes, 1671-1977,” images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:939L-JJ9W-TG?cc=1919417&wc=M6N4-NNL%3A210905601%2C211880901 : 21 May 2014), Charleston > Wills, 1818-1826, Vol. 034 > image 363 of 438; citing Department of Archives and History, Columbia.

Charles Drayton, Jr. died in 18442 without leaving a will. His estate inventory appears to list Kingsale and his family:

Excerpt, Estate Inventory of Charles Drayton, Jr.
Detail from Estate Inventory of Charles Drayton, Jr., M.D. “South Carolina Probate Records, Bound Volumes, 1671-1977,” images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:939L-JD98-QQ?cc=1919417&wc=M6NW-123%3A210905601%2C211135201 : 21 May 2014), Charleston > Inventories, Appraisements, Sales, 1839-1844, Vol. A > image 321 of 325; citing Department of Archives and History, Columbia.
Estate Inventory of Charles Drayton, Jr., 1844
Estate Inventory of Charles Drayton, Jr., 1844, “South Carolina Probate Records, Bound Volumes, 1671-1977,” images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:939L-JD98-QQ?cc=1919417&wc=M6NW-123%3A210905601%2C211135201 : 21 May 2014), Charleston > Inventories, Appraisements, Sales, 1839-1844, Vol. A > image 321 of 325; citing Department of Archives and History, Columbia.

Kingsale Pringle, Drayton Family Plantation Records

Kingsale Pringle and his family were listed at Drayton Hall in the 1844 estate inventory of Charles Drayton, Jr. Can we find Kingsale and his family in Drayton Hall plantation records?

Among the Drayton Family Papers held at the South Carolina Historical Society, we found a list of enslaved people, listed in families, dated 1858. You can view the original list at the South Carolina Historical Society. One of the families appears to be Kingsale, his parents and siblings:

Family Group, 1858 List

  • Renty
  • Sue
  • Frank
  • Georgian
  • Kingsail
  • Delia 
  • Tetty 

Let’s compare this family’s information to the 1870 Freedman’s Bank record:

Family Group, Freedman’s Bank Record, 1870:

  • Father: Renty 
  • Mother: Susan
  • Brother: Frank
  • Sister: Georgiana
  • Account Holder: King S. Pringle

1860 Cloth and Blanket List, Drayton Hall

The College of Charleston’s Lowcountry Digital Library has digitized the collection Drayton Family Papers, 1837-1869. Among those papers is a Slave and Clothing Inventory dated 1860, listing enslaved people at Drayton Hall who received cloth and blankets. Kingsale is not listed there. Those listed there were:

  • Frank Driver
  • Dick
  • Lunnon
  • Moses Joe K
  • Joe
  • Caesar
  • Harry
  • Hector
  • Charley
  • Skye
  • Solomon
  • Simon
  • Able Sr.
  • Able Jr.
  • Nanny Dr. Wife
  • Cloie
  • Nanny
  • Jenny
  • Rose
  • Amelia
  • Linder
  • Linda old
  • Kit
  • Pompey

Kingsale Pringle Timeline Gap, 1858-1860

Kingsale, his parents and siblings were listed in Charles Drayton, Jr.’s estate inventory in 1844 and again in a list of enslaved at Drayton Hall in 1858, but Kingsale does not appear on the Drayton Hall 1860 cloth and blanket list. Could Kingsale’s move to the Manigault family’s White Oak Plantation have occurred during slavery?

Manigault and Drayton Family Connections

Let’s see if there was any connection between the Drayton family and Edward and Arthur M. Manigault, owners of White Oak Plantation in North Santee. In his will, Charles Drayton, Sr. also bequeathed property to his daughter Charlotte, “now Mrs. Joseph Manigault.”

Excerpt from Will of Charles Drayton, 1820
Excerpt, Will of Charles Drayton, 1820, “South Carolina Probate Records, Bound Volumes, 1671-1977,” images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:939L-JJ9W-TG?cc=1919417&wc=M6N4-NNL%3A210905601%2C211880901 : 21 May 2014), Charleston > Wills, 1818-1826, Vol. 034 > image 363 of 438; citing Department of Archives and History, Columbia.

A glance at Charlotte Drayton Manigault’s will reveals that Edward and Arthur M. Manigault were her sons. You can read her entire will on FamilySearch here.

Excerpt, Will of Charlotte Manigault
Excerpt, Will of Charlotte Drayton Manigault, 1855, “South Carolina Probate Records, Bound Volumes, 1671-1977,” images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:939L-J89B-74?cc=1919417&wc=M6N4-JP8%3A210905601%2C212169701 : 21 May 2014), Charleston > Wills, 1851-1856, Vol. 047 > image 129 of 458; citing Department of Archives and History, Columbia.

Discussion

Our search for Kingsale Pringle who was listed in the 1869 South Carolina State Census led us to census records with the names of Kingsale Pringle’s family members. Searching for Kingsale and his family members led us to Reconstruction era records that revealed that Kingsale Pringle was born at Drayton Hall Plantation on the Ashley River in Charleston. We were able to locate several antebellum records that appear to list Kingsale, his parents and siblings during slavery.

There is a gap In Kingsale’s timeline between 1858, when he was listed with his family at Drayton Hall, and 1867, when he was living and working at White Oak Plantation in North Santee, Georgetown County, South Carolina. Perhaps the family ties between the Drayton family and Edward and Arthur M. Manigault of White Oak Plantation led to Kingsale’s move from Drayton Hall to White Oak Plantation, and this move may have occurred during slavery, as Kingsale Pringle does not appear in a list of enslaved people at Drayton Hall in 1860. This remains a subject for further research.

Related Resources

The FamilySearch Wiki page African American Resources for South Carolina provides an in-depth look at resources for African American genealogy research in South Carolina.

To learn more about African American genealogy research in South Carolina, you can view BlackProGen LIVE Ep19: North and South Carolina Genealogy Research.

More Wiki Resources for African American Genealogy

Researching African American Genealogy provides step-by-step guidance for beginning your ancestor search, as well as links to online resources.

Quick Guide to African American Records contains information on beginning research tips, links to suggested guides for beginning your search for African American ancestors, overviews of major record sets, tips for finding the slaveholder, links to tutorials for African American genealogy in the FamilySearch Learning Center, and links to other online and offline resources.

Southern States Slavery and Bondage Collections will help you locate digitized searchable collections as well as digitized microfilms in the FamilySearch catalog related to slavery and bondage. The page is arranged by state. 

African American Genealogy provides links to Wiki pages for researching African Americans in each U.S. state.

References Cited

[1] “South Carolina Probate Records, Bound Volumes, 1671-1977,” images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:939L-JJ9W-WD?cc=1919417&wc=M6N4-NNL%3A210905601%2C211880901 : 21 May 2014), Charleston > Wills, 1818-1826, Vol. 034 > image 365 of 438; citing Department of Archives and History, Columbia.

[2] “South Carolina Probate Records, Bound Volumes, 1671-1977,” images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:939L-JD98-QQ?cc=1919417&wc=M6NW-123%3A210905601%2C211135201 : 21 May 2014), Charleston > Inventories, Appraisements, Sales, 1839-1844, Vol. A > image 321 of 325; citing Department of Archives and History, Columbia.

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